Raymond of Penyafort — , a Spanish Dominican priest, is the patron saint of canonists, due to his important contributions to the science of Canon Law. The Orthodox Christian tradition in general treats its canons more as guidelines than as laws, the bishops adjusting them to cultural and other local circumstances. The dogmatic decisions of the Councils, though, are to be obeyed rather than to be treated as guidelines, since they are essential for the Church's unity.
In the Church of England , the ecclesiastical courts that formerly decided many matters such as disputes relating to marriage, divorce, wills, and defamation, still have jurisdiction of certain church-related matters e. In contrast to the other courts of England the law used in ecclesiastical matters is at least partially a civil law system, not common law , although heavily governed by parliamentary statutes.
Since the Reformation , ecclesiastical courts in England have been royal courts.
Such lawyers called "doctors" and "civilians" were centred at " Doctors Commons ", a few streets south of St Paul's Cathedral in London , where they monopolized probate , matrimonial, and admiralty cases until their jurisdiction was removed to the common law courts in the midth century. Admiralty law was also based on civil law instead of common law, thus was handled by the civilians too.
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Charles I repealed Canon Law in Scotland in after uprisings of Covenanters confronting the Bishops of Aberdeen following the convention at Muchalls Castle and other revolts across Scotland earlier that year. Other churches in the Anglican Communion around the world e. In Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, canon law is known as "practice and procedure" or "church order," and includes the church's laws respecting its government, discipline, legal practice and worship.
The Book of Concord is the historic doctrinal statement of the Lutheran Church , consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. Each Lutheran national church establishes its own system of church order and discipline, though these are referred to as "canons.
It is revised every four years by the General Conference, the law making body of The United Methodist Church; the last edition was published in Hindu law is largely based on the Manu Smriti smriti of Manu. It was recognized by the British during their rule of India but its influence waned after the establishment of the Republic of India , which has a secular legal system. Sharia is derived from two primary sources , the precepts set forth in the Quran and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the sunnah.
Islamic jurisprudence fiqh interprets and extends the application of sharia to questions not directly addressed in the primary sources by including secondary sources. These secondary sources usually include the consensus of the ulama religious scholars embodied in ijma and analogy from the Quran and sunnah through qiyas. Shia jurists prefer to apply reasoning 'aql rather than analogy in order to address difficult questions. Muslims believe sharia is God's law , but they differ as to what exactly it entails. Different countries, societies and cultures have varying interpretations of sharia as well.
Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime , politics and economics , as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse , hygiene , diet , prayer , and fasting. Where it has official status, sharia is applied by Islamic judges, or qadis. The imam has varying responsibilities depending on the interpretation of sharia; while the term is commonly used to refer to the leader of communal prayers, the imam may also be a scholar, religious leader, or political leader.
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The reintroduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries. Some Muslim minorities in Asia e. In western countries, where Muslim immigration is more recent, Muslim minorities have introduced sharia family law, for use in their own disputes, with varying degrees of success e.
Attempts by Muslims to impose sharia on non-Muslims in countries with large Muslim populations have been accompanied by controversy,    violence,       and even warfare cf. Second Sudanese Civil War. Jain law or Jaina law refers to the modern interpretation of ancient Jain Law that consists of rules for adoption, marriage, succession and death for the followers of Jainism.
Eastern Orthodox Church
After the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in the year 70 during the First Jewish-Roman War , the Oral Law was developed through intensive and expansive interpretations of the written Torah. The halakhah has developed gradually through a variety of legal and quasi-legal mechanisms, including judicial decisions, legislative enactments, and customary law.
The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, are referred to as responsa. Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law were written based on Talmudic literature and responsa. The most influential code, the Shulchan Aruch , guides the religious practice of most Orthodox and some Conservative Jews. According to rabbinic tradition there are mitzvot in the written Torah. The mitzvot in the Torah also called the Law of Moses pertain to nearly every aspect of human life.
Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups the Kohanim and Leviyim , members of the tribe of Levi , some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Some laws are only applicable when there is a Temple in Jerusalem see Third Temple. The Wiccan Rede is a statement that provides the key moral system in the Neopagan religion of Wicca and certain other related Witchcraft -based faiths.
A common form of the Rede is "An it harm none, do what ye will".
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Main article: dhammasattha. See also: Christian ethics , Render unto Caesar Main article: Biblical law in Christianity. Main article: Canon law. Main article: Canons of the Apostles. Jus vigens current law. Legal history. Oriental law.
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Procedural law. Legal practice and scholarship. Institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life. Main article: Canon law Catholic Church. Main article: Canon law Anglican Communion. Main article: Presbyterian polity. Main article: Hindu law. Further information: Sharia , Application of sharia by country , and Islamic ethics.
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Main article: Jain law. See also: Jain ethical code. Main article: Halakha. See also: Sanhedrin. See also: Wiccan Rede. Religion portal Law portal. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Balsamon also, the well-known commentator on the canons of the Middle Ages, in his commentary on the sixty-third Apostolic Canon , expressly blames the Latins because they had ceased to observe this command. What the Latin Church, however, thought on this subject about the year , is shown by St. Augustine in his work Contra Faustum , where he states that the Apostles had given this command in order to unite the heathens and Jews in the one ark of Noah; but that then, when the barrier between Jewish and heathen converts had fallen, this command concerning things strangled and blood had lost its meaning, and was only observed by few.
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