Often times, the course of scholarly study was impacted by the race of the individual. In , there were 85, female college students in the United States and 5, earned their bachelor's degrees; by , there were , female college students and 77, earned bachelor's degrees. Because the proper role for a white, middle class woman in s American society was that of wife and mother,  arguments in favor of women's education emphasized concepts of eugenics and citizenship.
Education showed women how to exercise their civic responsibilities, and it showed them the importance of the vote. The basic assumption in the s was that women should marry. In addition, the s marked great economic hardship in the United States with the start of the Great Depression. At this point in history, a college major was expected to be a practical one.
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As difficult financial times neared, needing to justify college expenses became very real for women and their families. A study in that surveyed nearly sixteen-hundred woman PhD recipients concluded that seventy percent required grants, scholarships, and fellowships in order to cover the expense associated with earning a higher degree. Despite the financial support, the majority of these women were required to save money for years before pursuing their degrees because the aid was never enough.
Despite these disadvantages, the s marked the peak of woman PhD earners.
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These degrees varied in fields and began to legitimize fields for women that were once off-limits. The "self-support" that these women engaged in to help finance their education became a widely accepted necessity. Both men and women were forced to find ways of supporting their education at this period of time. To help lessen the financial burden faced by families trying to educate their children, the National Youth Administration was created by the United States Government.
Between and , the NYA spent nearly 93 million dollars providing financial assistance. As the number of college graduates increased, those who were displaced during the Great Depression had to compete with a younger and more-educated group of people. The s also marked the 10th anniversary of Women's suffrage in the United States. Despite earning the right to vote, women were still largely refused any role in positions of political power that allow them to make political change for their gender.
This struggle sparked new examples of political activism and increased support for an Equal Rights Amendment. Teaching and nursing were the top two fields for women throughout the s,  but home economics also experienced a great surge in popularity during the Depression. In addition to this strong vocational orientation in American education during the opening decades of the twentieth century,  women began to make slow inroads into traditionally male dominated areas of education such as business, science, medicine, architecture, engineering, and law. Prior to the American Civil War few colleges admitted women.
Founded in as a primary school, Salem College is the oldest female educational establishment. Some were founded as co-educational institutions; Oberlin College , founded in , was the first college to accept women and African Americans as students. With the start of the war many males were in uniform so more opportunities arose for women to fill the empty space in schools and the universities became more willing to admit the women.
In the Seneca Falls Convention was held in New York to gain support for education and suffrage but it had little immediate impact. This convention is significant because it created a foundation for efforts toward equal education for women, even though it was not actually achieved until much later. The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of founded universities to educate both men and women in practical fields of study, though women's courses were still centered around home economics.
The law provided one year for compliance to elementary schools and three years for compliance to high schools and post secondary institutions. According to the Margaret Fund , in a court case was won upholding the nondiscriminatory acts in employment, the case title is as follows, North Haven Bd. Bell, U. In , the case Grove City v. In , this act was passed by Congress and reversed the damage from the Grove City v. Bell decision. During the s three significant changes or continuations to the law were made in the course of the decade. Second, the disclosure act in stated that all institutions under Title IX were to report publicly on their operations, with an effective implementation date set for Third, the ORC distributed requirements to institutions and schools which are explained and outlined more clearly the regulations for Title IX.
The significant events in the s allow schools to use e-mail surveys, and due to a Supreme Court case in , lawsuits on the basis of sexual discrimination under Title IX can be brought by parents.
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In it became a college. In it became Moravian Seminary and College for Women. Historians accept Moravian as the oldest—though not continuously operational because of its current co-ed status—specifically female institute of higher learning in the United States. Elizabeth Callister Peale and Sarah Callister taught painting and drawing. It was founded as a co-educational institution, but became exclusively for women in Ingham, who moved the school to Le Roy in The school was chartered on April 6, as the Ingham Collegiate Institute, and a full university charter was granted in April After financial difficulties, the college closed in and its property was sold at auction in Ingham University was the alma mater of Sarah Frances Whiting, who later founded the physics department and establish the astronomical observatory at Wellesley College.
She earned her degree from Oberlin College. Page became the first American woman to earn a degree in architecture, which she earned from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. It was a degree in civil engineering. It was the fourth African-American Greek letter organization for women, and the first African-American sorority established on a predominantly white campus, Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana. She earned the degree in from the Carnegie Library School, which later became part of the University of Pittsburgh. More associate degrees have been conferred on women every year since.
More bachelor's degrees have been conferred on women every year since. Hogan , U. Supreme Court's ruling Grove City College v. Grove City College was not a federally funded institution; however, they did accept students who were receiving Basic Educational Opportunity Grants through a Department of Education program.
The Court decided that since Grove City College was only receiving federal funding through the grant program, only that program had to be in compliance. More master's degrees have been conferred on women every year since. Virginia , U.
More doctoral degrees have been conferred on women every year since. Measured by shares, about Women still trail men in professional subcategories such as business, science and engineering, but when it comes to finishing college, roughly From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Women's colleges in the United States.
See also: Timeline of historically black women's colleges , Timeline of women's education , Timeline of women's colleges in the United States , and Women's colleges in the United States.
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CBS News. February Teachers College Record. Georgia Historical Quarterly. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Early American Studies. Gendered Lives. Boston: Lyn Uhl.
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History of Education Quarterly. In the Company of Educated Women. The Women's Movement: Political, Socioeconomic. Commonwealth : Encyclopedia of African-American Education. Retrieved Mount Holyoke College. Daniels Vassar College.
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History of Woman Suffrage: —, Volume 1. These include:. Education is widely accepted to be a fundamental resource, both for individuals and societies. Indeed, in most countries basic education is nowadays perceived not only as a right, but also as a duty — governments are typically expected to ensure access to basic education, while citizens are often required by law to attain education up to a certain basic level. In this entry we begin by providing an overview of long run changes in education outcomes and outputs across the world, focusing both on quantity and quality measures of education attainment; and then provide an analysis of available evidence on the determinants and consequences of education.
From a historical perspective, the world went through a great expansion in education over the past two centuries.
This can be seen across all quantity measures. Global literacy rates have been climbing over the course of the last two centuries, mainly though increasing rates of enrollment in primary education.
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